The maturity date of soybean Glycine max L. A total of world soybean varieties, including 48 MG checks, were tested at a major site Nanjing, The Soybean maturity groups date of the world soybean varied greatly 75— d in Nanjing. The cluster analysis among MGs and subgroups using genome-wide markers validated the MG sequential emergence order and the subgroup differentiation in eight MGs. For future evaluation, in addition to one major site Nanjingone supplementary southern site Nanning and one supplementary northern site Heihe are sufficient.
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Soybean Glycine max L. Soybean is rich in nutritional value due to its high protein and oil content as well as aspects of its functional composition, such as isoflavones. Along with its dissemination worldwide, soybean has adapted to diverse ecological conditions, especially to the local day length and temperature conditions created by Soybean maturity groups latitude and altitude.
The most significant trait related to adaptation to diverse environments is growth period, or maturity date. Originally, soybean was a short-day crop with a sensitive response to photoperiod, as well as temperature.
Because day length changes with the seasons, cropping season is another ecological factor determining the maturity date of soybean. The maturity date varies greatly among soybean Soybean maturity groups around the world, even within a same geographic region.
Initially, farmers and early soybean scientists classified soybeans as early, medium and late maturity types.
This classification was extensively used everywhere. However, it was insufficient at comparing varieties from different ecological regions. An early maturing variety in one region may be considered a late variety in another region. Ultimately, 13 MGs, i. MG00, 0, I, X, were formed in the world. The difference in maturity date between two adjacent groups is approximately 10 to 15 days in an adapted area Norman Categorizing soybeans into different MGs allows for more accurate and quick judgment of the prospects for introducing new varieties and plays an important role in Soybean maturity groups breeding and Soybean maturity groups of soybeans in North America.
Many soybean scientists in different countries have adopted this MG system and have classified their local varieties into different MGs. Monsanto was the first company to introduce the concept of maturity groups to Brazil Penariol As Soybean maturity groups increasing number of private companies used the North American system, the traditional Brazilian method of classifying varieties into early, medium and late was gradually replaced with the MG system and was classified into MG VI—VIII.
In China, the traditional way of grouping soybeans was also early, medium and late, relative to a local area and even to the cropping system Hao et al. In addition, they found Soybean maturity groups the significant difference in flowering date was related to geographic locations and cropping systems in MG 0, I, II and III and divided each group into two subgroups according to the days to R1 beginning bloom.
It seemed that the early maturity group continued to increase as the soybean area expanded northward and new varieties developed.
Soybean maturity groups to the trials at nine locations in Northeast China, Fu et al. Fukui and Arai studied the ecological classification of soybean varieties in Japan based on the days from germination to blooming and from blooming Soybean maturity groups ripening with special reference to their geographical differentiation. They grouped soybean varieties into five vegetative stage groups and three reproductive stage groups in a total of nine combined groups.
The growth period structure differentiation among varieties was also studied in China Sun et al.
They found that a different structure of growth periods existed within each group of MG Soybean maturity groups and further divided them into two subgroups: However, no study has been Soybean maturity groups out to evaluate the variation of MG of the worldwide soybean varieties under a uniform environment, due to the extreme diversity of the sensitivity to day length and temperature.
The present study aimed to reveal the variation of MGs of the world soybean varieties under a uniform environment Nanjing, China in this study and the distribution of MGs in world geographic regions.
The first step was to establish a procedure to identify diverse MGs for a large number of varieties, i. According to our previous experiences in identifying the MGs of Chinese soybeans Gai et al. The knowledge of the world MG expansion and geographic distribution will benefit both the development of soybean varieties and the exploration of the evolutionary processes of growth period traits. According to the dissemination paths described by Singh and Hymowitzthey were Soybean maturity groups divided into 13 geographic populations: MG types of world soybean varieties distributed in 13 geographic populations including 48 MG checks.
The field experiments were set in five locations: Table 1 shows the entire experimental scheme with the MG checks arranged.
The field tests at the major site of Nanjing and its supplementary site of Jining were conducted in two years. Here, spring planting was used for testing the full season response of the materials rather than the local summer planting which is the regular double cropping system after winter wheat. Inone additional earliest variety Glycine max L.
An additional test for late MGs was conducted in Nanjing inin which late varieties were sown approximately 10 days earlier than in and The field test at the supplementary site of Heihe was conducted in two years. In Soybean maturity groups, 40 early varieties around MG —0 were sown on May 17, and in74 early varieties were sown on May Another additional supplementary test was conducted in Mudanjiang inin which early varieties around MG —II were sown on May An additional supplementary test was conducted in Nanning, in which 65 late varieties were sown on July The soybeans were tested in single row plots, 1 m Soybean maturity groups length and 0.
After emergence, they were thinned to 6—8 seedlings. The phenological stages of emergence VEbeginning bloom R1 and full maturity R8 were recorded as Fehr and Caviness described. The flowering date and maturity date were calculated as the period from sowing to R1 and from sowing to R8, respectively. The maturity dates of the 48 MG checks were used as standards for identifying the MGs of each tested material at each site. The MG type of a variety was identified from the results in Nanjing with reference to those in Jining.
Therefore, Soybean maturity groups MGs were separated into subgroups first subgroup and second subgroup. To save space, the detailed procedure will be explained in the corresponding results section. For revealing the genetic relationship among the MGs, of the varieties were genotyped using RAD-seq restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing.
The sequences of the varieties were obtained by using Illumina HisSeq instrument through MSG multiplexed shotgun genotyping method Andolfatto et al. We found that when using the full season conditions in Nanjing, China sown in early springall of the Chinese soybean varieties could mature naturally Gai et al. That means to compare the maturity date of the world soybean varieties in a uniform environment in Nanjing, China Therefore, the major site for evaluation of the worldwide soybean maturity date was set in Nanjing.
The evaluation results in the Nanjing I environment indicated a very large variation in maturity date among the world soybeans, ranging from 75— d with an average of Nanjing is better than Jining in its sensitivity for detecting maturity date differences range between 73— d, an average of The frequency distribution of the world soybean maturity date in Nanjing comprised multiple peaks, this indicates that the population of world soybean varieties is a mixture of multiple subpopulations with the extremes as rare types Table 2.
The frequency distribution and descriptive statistics of the maturity date in world soybean varieties including 48 MG checks. The maturity dates in Nanjing I, Jining and Soybean maturity groups were the average data of and The maturity dates in Nanjing II were the data, and the maturity dates in Mudanjiang and Nanning were the data.